Born in Belgium, Schumacher was brought by his parents as an infant to America. He spent his childhood in Boston. In 1888, he returned to Europe, studying first in Dresden and then in Paris, where he attended the Academie Julian. Remaining in Paris until 1912, he was influenced by the works of the Post-Impressionist painters, including Georges Seurat, Paul Signac, Maurice Denis, and Pierre Bonnard. Upon his return to the United States that year, he established studios in New York and at the artists colony of Woodstock, New York.